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Tag Archives: European Convention on Human Rights

(Alleged) torturers welcome to Britain – just pick up your certificate of immunity

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The lives of high profile war criminals, torturers and despots have just got a little easier. No longer need they strike Britain off the list of destinations when they fancy a foreign jolly out of fear that some officious busybody will spoil their fun by having them arrested for their crimes.

All they have to do is get the Foreign Office to declare them on a “special mission” and they become untouchable. They have immunity, not because the UK Parliament has given them immunity through a statute fully debated and passed by MPs and Peers. Instead a couple of High Court judges have declared they have immunity as part of English Common Law. As such immunity for those on special missions has always been the law.*

The High Court case was prompted by a visit to Britain by Lieut General Mahmoud Hegazy, the director of the Egyptian Military Intelligence Service blamed for the “atrocities” that arose from the crushing of a demonstrators opposing the coup against Mohamed Morsi in July 2013. Hegazy came to Britain in 2015 to meet government ministers, but part of his “official” mission was a visit to a London arms fair, according to the Guardian.

On the face of it the judgment (R (Freedom and Justice Party) v the Foreign Office) – in favour of the Foreign Office position – flies in the face of the Government’s insistence in 2013 that it had the “firm policy of ending impunity for the most serious international crimes and a commitment to the protection of human rights”. On the other hand it does get the Government and state agents such as the police and Director of Public Prosecutions off an embarrassing hook when a torturer or despot comes calling on “official” business.

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Judge criticises Home Office after failure to deport Jamaican drug dealer

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A UK Court of Appeal judge has criticised the Home Office for delays in dealing with the expulsion of a convicted Jamaican drug dealer which could increase his chance of staying in Britain. A decision to deport the man, known as KD, was made in 2007 after he served a five-year sentence for dealing in class A drugs. But failings by the Home Office mean he is still in the UK with an improved chance of remaining as time passes.

The Upper Tribunal (Immigration and Asylum) had ruled that his deportation would breach his Article 8 family rights because he had had a relationship with a British woman since 2001 and they had three children. Now Lord Justice Richards in the Court of Appeal has granted the Government a right to appeal against that judgment – but said “the passage of time is likely to strengthen rather than weaken the respondent’s Article 8 claim in the event that the matter falls to be decided afresh”.

Problems in the procedure started because the Home Office failed to serve the deportation order on KD in 2007. The Secretary of State had treated KD’s Article 8 application for leave to remain as if it was an application to revoke the non-existent deportation order – and had rejected it.
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Housing associations: right to buy versus right to property

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Fast forward five years. A new leftist government is elected in Britain (majority 12) with a flagship policy to extend home ownership to “Generation Rent”. Legislation is drawn up to force private landlords to sell their properties at a discount to their tenants under a radical right to buy scheme. Unfortunately there is a stumbling block. One of the few human rights still standing amid the ruins of the old human rights regime following the Human Rights (Abolition of Trivial Provisions) Amendment Act 2017 is the right to property. Forcing owners of rental properties to sell them offends against Part 1 Chapter 1 Article 1(1) of the new British Bill of Rights which says:

“Every natural or legal person is entitled to the peaceful enjoyment of his possessions. No one shall be deprived of his possessions except in the public interest and subject to the conditions provided for by law and by the general principles of international law.”

Fortunately, though, there is a precedent. Backtrack five years and the Conservative Government of 2015 had just such a radical policy of redistribution of property. It similarly forced property owners to sell homes to their tenants at a discount of 35% or more – caring not whether those property owners were driven to bankruptcy as a result. The fact that the property owners are housing associations doesn’t mean they don’t have human rights: they are private bodies (hence “legal persons”) and the flats they let out are their private property. The wording quoted above is that of Article 1 Protocol 1 of the European Convention on Human Rights, which applies now and which the Tories have no known plans to repeal – because the human right to property is one of the “important” human rights they set great store by. Read the rest of this entry

Algerians win new round in human rights battle against deportation

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Six Algerians considered “a threat to the national security of the United Kingdom” have won a new round in a legal battle that has, in three cases, lasted nearly eight years to resist deportation on human rights grounds. The Case of BB & Others v Secretary of State for the Home Department considers how far poor treatment and physical conditions (rather than torture) in foreign detention centres lacking British standards may justify a human rights bar to deportation. The issue is about “the requisite minimum level of severity needed to breach Article 3″ (of the European Convention on Human Rights on torture and inhuman treatment).

An agreement is in place between the UK and Algeria that terrorism suspects will not be tortured or mistreated on their return. However, the Court of Appeal decided that a tribunal (SIAC) that found the Algerians could be deported had failed to give full consideration to whether their potential detention and interrogation for up to 12 days by military authorities in Algeria would itself constitute “inhuman treatment” under Article 3. 

The court also questioned whether there were adequate safeguards to verify whether the Algerian authorities were observing the assurances given to the the UK Government about treatment of deportees. The assurances included Algeria’s acceptance in the case of any deportee of “the right to respect, in any circumstances, for his human dignity”.

The Special Immigration Appeals Commission (SIAC) will now have to look at the case again and consider evidence that conditions at Antar barracks interrogation centre in Algiers, where the men would be held temporarily, are not acceptable. 

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Bank error in your favour? Santander may be coming for you

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Santander Bank in Britain has been given the right to identify and pursue by telephone and email the beneficiaries of erroneous payments – even though the thousands of pounds-worth of errors were made as a result of Santander’s own failings.

The High Court has rejected privacy concerns and ruled that Santander can force other banks to reveal the details of mistaken beneficiaries by issuing a “Norwich Pharmacal” order – usually used to reveal fraudsters and other wrongdoers – even though wrongdoing may not have occurred in these cases. 

The unwitting beneficiaries can now have their names, addresses, emails and telephone numbers revealed to Santander which can use them to press customers to repay the money or ultimately take legal action against them. Mr Justice Birss in the High Court Chancery Division has concluded that privacy rights are trumped by property rights. The orders are supposed to be issued only in exceptional cases but Birss has in effect created a rubber-stamping mechanism for issuing the orders whenever banks make errors and cannot trace the beneficiaries.

The case undermines the right to privacy by suggesting that in future there need not be real evidence of wrongdoing (eg fraud or internet piracy) or of a wrongdoer before such orders are issued. They can be issued on the assumption of wrongdoing without an arguable case being put in open court that wrongdoing has occurred.

Hundreds of such transfer errors occur each month and Santander has recently set up a Refunds and Recoveries team to deal with them. Typical errors include duplicate payments, the selection of an incorrect mandate and the insertion of an incorrect account number. In some cases the bank is stymied when trying to get money back from customers of other banks because the beneficiaries – whose names and details are unknown to Santander – are protected by the other banks’ confidentiality.

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Conservatives’ Bill of Rights: suddenly they are all relativists now

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Quick, we need some long-held, deeply felt convictions – and we need them fast. You know: stuff we can bung in a written UK constitution based on centuries of history, shared values and culture – that sort of thing. Why? Because that way we can keep the European Court of Human Rights off our backs.

The Conservative Party, you see, has noticed that the Strasbourg court – known for riding roughshod over UK government actions – is sometimes willing to let countries get away with things. But only if those countries have long-held, deeply felt convictions that emerge from their history, shared values and culture – and are written into their constitution.

Britain doesn’t have a written constitution, hence the new “UK Bill of Rights and Responsibilities” that the Conservatives are working on.

The rationale being used for the new Bill of Rights – that human rights are relative, not absolute – would not be out of place if uttered by a 1970s leftie lecturer at a bog-standard polytechnic. Here is arch-Tory Charlie Elphicke introducing his Bill of Rights (which will be the basis of the official Conservative Party version) in a parliamentary Private Member’s Bill last year:

The Bill is intended to help rebalance the approach to human rights towards a more subjective application to particular cases with the aim of ensuring that justice and fairness are not trumped by the rigid objective view that has characterised the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights.”

So Strasbourg judges have been too objective, apparently. Elphicke is wholly insistent on this subjectivity point, rejecting the principle that judges should come to decisions on a straightforward objective reading of the law. They should take account of each country’s history, shared values and culture before making decisions on their governments’ alleged breaches of human rights.

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Twitter joke and Lord Judge-made law – without the ECHR bits

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It seems that giving the European Convention on Human Rights a good kicking is all the fashion at the moment. One expects the bully-boys of the Conservative Party to give the ECHR a bit of a bashing, aided at times by members of the rival UKIP gang. But when three well-dressed mature gentlemen with fob watches and silver handled canes hoved into view, surely one might have thought the bovver boys would flee, the decent old coves pick up the poor battered fellow, dust him down, press a half crown into his begrimed palm and send him peaceably on his way.

But no. Instead Lords Judge and Sumption and Laws LJ (for it was they) launched their hand-finished Grensons in a few well-aimed kicks at the supine body of law that is Strasbourg jurisprudence then stood back to let the nasty parties finish the job.

Former Lord Chief Justice Lord Judge is latest to give his view and his UCL lecture is here: Constitutional change; unfinished business. Lord Judge’s intervention has given rise to a curious suggestion – that in at least one case, Paul Chambers v DPP, (the Twitter joke trial) barristers deliberately avoided making ECHR Article 10 (freedom of expression) points as they knew he was “unfavourable” to them. Read the rest of this entry

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