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Court of Appeal upholds Keith Best’s right to keep house he squatted

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Builder Keith Best has won a Court of Appeal case allowing his ownership of a £400,000 house after he refurbished it and started squatting it in 2001 – even though he was squatting illegally after 2012.

Best had noticed the empty house in Church Road, Newbury Park, Ilford, in 1997 and decided to make it habitable, moving in in 2001. Around 2013 he applied to the Land Registry to have it registered in his name. The law says an occupier “in adverse possession” (ie squatting without permission of the owner or having established possession by other means, such as putting a fence around the property) can apply to the land registrar to place it in his name after 10 years.

But Best staked his claim after the criminalisation of residential squatting in 2012. The registrar argued that since Best was in illegal occupation after that time, his claim could not be registered. Ownership would not be transferred to him.

The Court of Appeal has now said the registrar was wrong. The criminalisation of squatting in Section 144 of the Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Act (LASPO S.144) did not prevent a perfectly legal claim to a property under the 2002 Land Registration Act. Lord Justice Sales said:

“I consider that the true inference is that in enacting section 144 Parliament did not intend to produce any collateral effect upon the settled law of adverse possession in respect of either registered or unregistered land.” (Para 75)

Adverse possession is covered by Schedule 6 to the Land Registration Act 2002 which says: “A person may apply to the registrar to be registered as the proprietor of a registered estate in land if he has been in adverse possession of the estate for the period of ten years ending on the date of the application.

A further two years is allowed while the registrar contacts the previously registered owner (“the proprietor of the estate to which the application relates,“) plus others with a potential interest to see if they object to the transfer to a new owner. “Possession” need not be by squatting but by an action that counts as possession. Best did a lot of work on the house over the years but was not always actually living there during his 10 years of adverse possession. Nevertheless he accrued the Schedule 6 right to make his application. The new ruling from the Court of Appeal confirms that the “adverse possession” (without permission but without objection or resistance by the owner) may include a period of time when occupation is unlawful under LASPO S.144. Read the rest of this entry

Squatting, adverse possession and the LASPO s.144 debacle

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Ancient Roman law gives illegal squatter £400,000 home. Or so you would think from the coverage of builder Keith Best’s Land Registry claim to have 35 Church Road, Newbury Park, Ilford, registered in his name.

The importance of the case is (or will be when it goes through appeals) that it should clarify how far the criminalisation of squatting (LASPO S.144) impacts on the law of adverse possession.

It’s a knotty problem. The Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Act 2012 rendered squatting criminal if the occupier “is in a residential building as a trespasser having entered it as a trespasser”. The Act is in a sense retrospective. You fall within it even if you entered the premises before the Act was passed – in Best’s case around 2001. Best unfortunately staked his adverse possession claim after the Act came into force so the land registrar rejected it on the grounds he was an illegal trespasser according to the meaning of Section 144.

Adverse possession, far from being a Roman law, is covered by Schedule 6 to the Land Registration Act 2002 which says: “A person may apply to the registrar to be registered as the proprietor of a registered estate in land if he has been in adverse possession of the estate for the period of ten years ending on the date of the application.” A further two years is allowed while the registrar contacts the registered owner (“the proprietor of the estate to which the application relates,“) plus others with a potential interest to see if they object to the transfer to a new owner.

Read the rest of this entry

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